What Operating System Specialists Know and Python 2 and 3 Toggling

This video posted out by Google is a fabulous 5-hour must-watch, it walks through the following contents:

  • Windows OS list directories.
  • Linux list directories. How to use command line interface
  • How to change and make directories of windows and linux os in command line interface
  • Windows and linux command history
  • Copying file and directories
  • Display file contents and modifying it
  • Windows powershell
  • Searching in OS
  • input, output and pipeline
  • Operating system user, groups, administration
  • Linux user, super user, password, adding and removing user
  • Windows and Linux file systems, permission
  • Windows and linux software management, packages
  • Windows and Linux devices and drivers
  • OS file system, software update
  • Disk partitioning, formatting, mounting, unmounting, swap partition
  • Repair file system.
  • process management, creation, termination, resource monitoring
  • remote connection and ssh, file transfer
  • virtual machines, system monitoring, event viewer
  • operating system logs files and so on.

What is acutely related to my work is about “software management, packages”.

Package managers come with the works to make package installation and removal easier, including installing package dependencies. Windows package managers is from third party called chocolatey.

So what’s underneath the hood when all these package install, uninstall, update, upgrade are happening? Taking Windows as an example, knowing that is not the best since it’s packaged codes not open to public, it offers “windows installer” in the form of .msi files. Msi files are loosely relational databases structured as COM Structured Storages.

Python installation can be conducted by using the installation executable when you download it, or using command line in windows or Linux systems to install. The preferable way is to leverage a distributing tool called Anaconda, which take care of lots of detail, caveats, updates etc automatically for the user.

The impending problem I need to solve is that all the scripts are in Python 2.7, but in next year, they need to be transferred to Python 3 since the Python organization will cease supporting 2.7 by 2020. In the interim, there are two tasks: one is to create and run both environments: python 2 and python3; the other is to learn syntax difference between the two and to convert 2.7 codes into 3.6 version.

In its official webpage, Anaconda has detailed the methods to toggle between them. The key commands to type in CMD.exe are:

conda create --name py2 python=2.7 (create python 2 environment)
conda create --name py3 python=3.5 (create python 3 environment)
activate py2

deactivate

So I can use this script language directly in command lines as

Moreover, in Anaconda Navigator, a better/more convenient way is provided. I just need to select py3 as the environment I want my application to run on, and then open up whichever IDE I want to use.

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